Smartphones Can Record 3D Printer Sounds and Replicate The 3D Model

Nearly every machine has a distinct sound signature and that includes 3D printers with their multiple stepper motors. Thieves who are able to get physically close to a fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer as it prints would be able to record the sounds as the model prints and then, by using sophisticated algorithms, reverse engineer that model and print it.

Dr. Ismail Fidan, Professor of the Department of Manufacturing and Engineering Technology and College of Engineering-Faculty Fellow in Innovation and Techno-Entrepreneurship at Tennessee Technological University and his team conducted a cybersecurity research project that was able to record 3D printer sounds as an object was printed and later replicate that model on another printer by performing a cyber acoustic analysis. A classification and regression model was completed on the audio recorded during the 3D printing process and G-Code data was created to attempt another 3D print.

Image Courtesy of Tennessee Tech University – Dr. Ismail Fidan

To date, according to the research paper and results, “Current security measures have focused on securing machines against cyber based attacks with cloud based resources and software programs. Nevertheless, attacks in the physical domain have also occurred… The physical component of AM machines opens up the system to vulnerabilities due to side-channels. Side-channels are indirect pathways that lead to the access of desired data such as obtaining G-Code from vibrational, acoustic, magnetic, or power emissions. Previous analysis of side-channels has been used to infer information about cyber domain data. Therefore, it is important to analyze these side-channels to better secure the system and prevent leakage of IP.”

Image Courtesy of Tennessee Tech University – Dr. Ismail Fidan

As other researchers have pointed out, these intellectual property risks are not far-fetched and present a real problem for additive manufacturing. Dr. Fidan and team are proving that it is possible to record and reproduce a 3D print. Built into that research, IP protection methods are sure to evolve. Keep track of Dr. Fidan’s work at Tennessee Technological University and its Additive Manufacturing (aka 3D Printing) efforts.

Illustration Courtesy of Tennessee Tech

Additional Resources:

The University of California, Irvine reported on a similar research project in 2016: Bad vibrations: UCI researchers find security breach in 3-D printing process.

“The team, led by Mohammad Al Faruque, director of UCI’s Advanced Integrated Cyber-Physical Systems Lab, showed that a device as ordinary and ubiquitous as a smartphone can be placed next to a machine and capture acoustic signals that carry information about the precise movements of the printer’s nozzle. The recording can then be used to reverse engineer the object being printed and re-create it elsewhere. Detailed processes may be deciphered through this new kind of cyberattack, presenting significant security risks.”

A team at the University of Buffalo published Smartphone hacks 3-D printer by measuring ‘leaked’ energy and acoustic waves.

“Unlike most security hacks, the researchers did not simulate a cyberattack. Many 3-D printers have features, such as encryption and watermarks, designed to foil such incursions. Instead, the researchers programmed a common smartphone’s built-in sensors to measure electromagnetic energy and acoustic waves that emanate from 3-D printers. These sensors can infer the location of the print nozzle as it moves to create the three-dimensional object being printed.”

M-STEM 2017 Materials And Beyond!

Thomas Nelson Community College (TNCC) hosted the 30th annual Materials in STEM (M-STEM) Workshop 2017 in Hampton, Virginia on November 6 and 7.  107 participants enjoyed two full days of active engagement in materials science. They came from community colleges, universities, teachers of grades 8-12, government, students and industry; all gathering at TNCC for professional development.

On the first day, there were hands-on sessions that included lab work in ceramics and glass, composite sandwich panels, water rockets, nanoscience and thermosets.

On the second day, participants chose one of three tracks for a six hour, hands-on workshop about 3D Printing, Solids – the Science of Stuff, or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS).

  • In the UAS track, participants built a drone from a kit, practiced flying it through an obstacle course and gathered data they could analyze at the same time. The UAS Intensive was presented by the Virginia Space Grant Consortium.
Image by Eliana Pesola
  • In 3D printing track, participants were introduced to the concepts needed to design, model and print a prototype or production item.
  • The Solids-the Science of Stuff track presented great ways to incorporate chemistry that were authentic, low cost and relevant.
Image by Eliana Pesola

The entire two-day M-STEM event is designed for practical application to ensure that teachers can replicate the experiments or projects in a classroom.

Details on the Keynotes:

Dr. Darrel R. Tenney, former Director of Aerospace Vehicle Systems Technology at NASA Langley, who showcased some of the research on materials that has taken place during this 100 year anniversary period.

Dr. Magesh Chandramouli shared the second keynote presentation on virtual reality for active learning that was innovative, as he explained how low cost methods can be used to incorporate VR into the student learning experience. A great example of that was setting up a clean room virtually to teach safety strategies and protocols. Students then don’t have to worry about making a mistake or having to sneeze and requiring they reset the whole environment; they just keep going.

Tom Singer, Principal Investigator for the Guitar Building Project, was the lunch keynote.  He gave an overview of the program and an explanation of the STEM components in the curriculum.  He also shared several examples of students who have achieved better results in STEM classes as a result of their participation.

Additive Manufacturing Leadership Initiative Updates Additive Manufacturing Body of Knowledge

Additive manufacturing, aka 3D printing, is changing on a near-daily basis. In order to stay current, and maintain a shared understanding of these constant shifts, the Additive Manufacturing Leadership Initiative (AMLI) continues to update the Additive Manufacturing Body of Knowledge.

This Body of Knowledge (BOK) was originally completed by the Milwaukee School of Engineering (MSOE) along with the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) in 2013. The latest update was in 2016 and it is quite a feat.

What Is A Body Of Knowledge?

The formal definition of a Body of Knowledge (BOK or BoK) is the complete set of concepts, terms and activities that make up a professional domain, as defined by the relevant learned society or professional association.[1] It is a type of knowledge representation by any knowledge organization.

The 2016 Additive Manufacturing BOK is a comprehensive overview of the current state-of knowledge in additive manufacturing, as well as areas that have been identified as important by a wide range of additive manufacturing professionals. The Additive Manufacturing BOK can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Inform the development of training and educational program content
  • Focus the design of intern and apprentice experiences
  • Establish the desired content of industry recognized certificate programs and certifications
  • Provide the structure for the development of detailed Additive Manufacturing BOK content and resources

Over 500 additive manufacturing professionals responded to the Additive Manufacturing BOK update questionnaire. These results were tabulated and interpreted by members of the Additive Manufacturing Leadership Initiative (AMLI). Based on the survey, the following changes were made in the 2016 Additive Manufacturing BOK:

  1. Terminology was revised to bring the Additive Manufacturing BOK in line with ASTM AM standards.
  2. The following four categories were added: Additive Manufacturing (AM) Materials (formerly combined with AM Technology & Materials), AM Technology & Methods (reflects the removal of materials to another category), AM Post-Processing, and AM Safety.
  3. The following categories were identified as additive manufacturing resources rather than Additive Manufacturing BOK categories, and were either removed or not added to the 2016 AMBOK though suggested: Careers in AM, AM History, AM People, and AM Entrepreneurship. This is not a reflection on the importance of the content in these areas, but rather an indication that the ideal placement of these categories is not within the 2016 Additive Manufacturing BOK.
  4. Key topics within each category were edited to reflect newly developed areas or areas not identified in the 2013 Additive Manufacturing BOK.

The Additive Manufacturing BOK update questionnaire also explored areas of training interest and importance. The top five additive manufacturing topics for training interest and importance were identified as:

  1. New methods for AM design qualification
  2. AM materials – overall, new, and enhanced
  3. Scaling for AM direct production
  4. Electron beam melting
  5. Models for education and training/re-training design engineers

AMLI consists of Tooling U-SME, America Makes–National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute, Technician Education in Additive Manufacturing & Materials (TEAMM), the National Coalition of Advanced Technology Centers (NCATC), and the Milwaukee School of Engineering (MSOE). It utilized TEAMM’s Core Competencies for additive manufacturing technicians to plan content for training classes, certificate and certification programs, and ultimately develop Additive Manufacturing BOK-based resources including books on the topic.

A copy of the 2016 Additive Manufacturing BOK with specific changes, and summary data from the Additive Manufacturing BOK update questionnaire is available for viewing and download here.

Materials In Stem November Workshop in Virginia

For over 30 years, M-STEM, also known as The Materials in STEM Workshop, has been bringing together students, faculty, and industry to show how materials science serves as a way to explore and understand STEM education methods.

Next month, at Thomas Nelson Community College in Hampton, Virginia, M-STEM will share a wide range of hands-on experiments, demonstrations, in addition to keynotes from a NASA scientist and the founder of a successful STEM guitar building program, during its two day professional development workshop on November 6 and 7, 2017.

If you have attended other workshops where the program is mostly presenters talking at you, M-STEM promises that the hands-on sessions are not your average program. Here are a few of the unique sessions meant to jumpstart your STEM classes back home:

  • The Toothpick Factory
  • Teachers with Torches
  • Engineering Water Rockets

Sponsored by The National Resource Center for Materials Science Technology Education (MatEdU), Thomas Nelson Community College and Edmonds Community College, M-STEM strives to help faculty to create ways to engage students so that they understand Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) principles, especially relating to materials science. The program is ideal for secondary and post secondary faculty.

Intensives are a unique opportunity to accomplish a new skill through a more comprehensive full-day training format.  Pick one intensive and stay with it throughout the day:

  • Solids: The Science of Stuff
  • Additive Manufacturing (aka 3D Printing)
  • Unmanned Aircraft Systems

You can register here on the MaterialsInStem.org website.

Sponsors:  MatEdU National Resource Center, Thomas Nelson Community College, Nano-Link Center for Nanotechnology Education, Critical Materials Institute, Virginia Space Grant Consortium, Edmonds Community College, NSF, GeoTEd-UAS, and SpaceTEC.

LIFT Is Leading The Nation In Lightweight Technology

Lightweight Innovations for Tomorrow, or LIFT, is a Detroit-based, public-private partnership committed to the development and deployment of advanced lightweight metal manufacturing technologies.

This post is both an event announcement and an update on what LIFT is doing to improve and inspire STEM education. At the upcoming Manufacturing Day 2017, Friday, October 6, LIFT and IACMI – The Composites Institute will unveil a state-of-the-art Lightweighting research and development laboratory in Detroit’s historic Corktown neighborhood.

The $50 million facility will bring together two Manufacturing USA institutes focusing on cutting edge lightweighting applied research and development in metals and composite materials. This facility will bring together advance manufacturing experts from around the country to conduct innovative research and advanced lightweight manufacturing. More info on the event at the end of this post.

LIFT is driven by implementing education and training initiatives to better prepare the workforce today and in the future. LIFT is one of the founding institutes of Manufacturing USA, and is funded in part by the Department of Defense with management through the Office of Naval Research. LIFT is also part of The National Resource Center for Materials Technology Education (MatEdU), headquartered at Edmonds Community College (home of TEAMM AM News). You can learn more about their lightweighting technology work on the LIFT YouTube channel.

See the full story about Finley in the link at end of post.

Earlier this year, LIFT, along with Tennessee Tech University iCube, the Tennessee STEM Innovation Network, the Kentucky Association of Manufacturers and the Foundation for Kentucky Industry announced the winning schools of the 2016-2017 MakerMinded competition. Eight schools in Tennessee and Kentucky were recognized for excellence in advanced manufacturing and STEM learning through their participation in MakerMinded, a new online STEM learning and competition platform.

MakerMinded was launched at the start of the 2016 school year to impassion students about advanced manufacturing and provide them with transformational learning experiences that set them on track towards 21st century manufacturing careers. The platform provides access to a diverse range of national and local STEM and advanced manufacturing programs, including manufacturing facility tours, gaming activities, project-based learning, and competitions.

Tennessee schools were awarded in May at the Tennessee STEM Innovation Summit in Murfreesboro:

  • STEM School Chattanooga – Hamilton County Department of Ed (Chattanooga, TN)
  • Heritage High School – Blount County Schools (Maryville, TN)
  • Cookeville High School – Putnam County School District (Cookeville, TN)
  • White Station Middle School – Shelby County Schools (Memphis, TN)
  • Rose Park Middle School – Metro Nashville Public Schools (Nashville, TN)
  • Maxine Smith STEAM Academy – Shelby County Schools (Memphis, TN)

Kentucky Schools celebrated at a special ceremony at the Kentucky Association of Manufacturers Innovation Summit on June 1, 2017.

  • Trigg County High School—Trigg County Public Schools (Cadiz, KY)
  • Turkey Foot Middle School—Kenton County Schools (Edgewood, KY)

* * * * *

The 2017-2018 MakerMinded competition began in August in Kentucky and Tennessee. In addition, a partnership with Battelle and the Ohio STEM Learning Network, enabled LIFT to launch MakerMinded in Ohio at the same time. You can learn more about it here at MakerMinded.com.

RSVP to join the Manufacturing Day 2017 Open House for the new LIFT and IACMI facility here.

Learn more about Finley the Fabricator — the contest to create a new mascot for the LIFT MakerMinded STEM initiative. Collin Garrison is the young man who built a mascot model from old car parts.